Convergent Validity

Convergent Validity

Convergent validity is a subset of construct validity. Here, the researcher’s aim is to find out whether the items he claims are measuring a particular construct are indeed measuring them.

Factor loading and Cross-loading

Understand the concept of factor loadings and cross loading; steps required to output these results from SPSS.

How to calculate Average Variance Extracted and Composite Reliability

Download an excel file and calculate your AVE and CR in 5 simple steps!

Average Variance Extracted (AVE)

On average, how much variations in your items can be explained by a construct or latent variable? This is the purpose of AVE.

Composite Reliability

Does your construct's composite reliability value meets the threshold?

Reliability Analysis in SPSS

Do it yourself - Learn how to determine reliability of each construct and that of the research model using Cronbach alpha (α) in 4 simple steps.

Concept of Reliability

Pause! Let me ask you a question, how reliable was the questionnaire you last distributed or how reliable were the various items/questions measuring their respective construct?